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International Business EnglishLesson 1International Business/国际商务Business Knowledge:The major differences between international business and domestic businessA. Differences in legal systems 法律体系B. Differences in currencies 货币C・ Differences in cultural backgroundD・ Different in natural and economic conditionsThe major types of international businessA. Tradea. Commodity trade 商品贸易b・ Service tradeB. In vestmenta. Foreign direct investmentb. Portfolio investment 证券投资C. Other typesa. Licensing and franchising许可经营和特许经营b・ Management contract and contract manufacturing 管理合同和承包生产c. Turnkey project and BOTTrade Terms:1. Customs iirea 关税区：2. Conversion货币兑换3. Visible trade 有形贸易：The form of commodity trade, i.c. exporting and importing goods produced or manufactured in one country for con sumption or resale in another, (including cash transaction-by means of money and market, and counter trade)4. Invisible trade 无形贸易：The form of transportation, communication, banking, insurance, consulting, information etc. is called invisible trade or service industries.5. FDI 外国直接投资：Foreign direct investments. Returns through controlling the enterprises or assets invested in a host country・ / P.256. One country acquires assets in a foreign country forthe purpose of controlling and managing them.6. Portfolio investment 证券投资：Purchases of foreign financial assets for a purpose other than controlling ・7. Stocks 股票：Capital stocks or bonds.8. Bonds 债券：The papers issued by a government or a firm with promise to pay back the money lent or invested together with interest.9. Maturity （票据等）到期10. Certificate of deposit 大额存单11 ・ Licensing 许可经营：In licensing, a firm leases the right to use its intellectual property to a firm in another country. They choose licensing because they do not have to make cash payments to stat business, and can simply receive income in the form of royalty （许町费）・12. Franchising 特许经营：Under franchising, franchisee is allowed to operate in the name of another, franchiser who provides the former with trademarks, brand names, logos and operating techniques for royalty.13. Trade Mark 商标14. Patent 专利15. Royalty专利（许可）使用费，版税16. Copyright 版权17. Licenser 许可方I8・Licensee被许可方19. Franchiser 特许方：A firm who provides the franchisee with trademarks, brand names, logos and operating techniques for royalty・20. Franchisee 被特许方：A firm is allowed to operate in the name of another.21. Management contract 管理合同:Under a management contract, one company offers managerial or other specialized services to another within a particular period for a flat payment or a percentage of the relevant business volume・22. Value chain 价值链23. Turnkey project "交钥匙" 工程：For an international turnkey project, a firm signs a contract with a foreign purchaser and undertakes all the designing, contracting and facility equipping before handing it over to the latter upon completion・24. BOT 建设.经营和移交：Build, Operate, Transfer25. 。省略部分。hing bought and sold; any article of commerce・4. What is the theme of the 11th session of UNCTAD?A: The theme of the 11th session of UNCTAD is to coordinate development strategies for the promotion of the economic development of the world especially of the developing countries./调整发展战略，促进全球经济，尤其是发展中国家的经济发展。5. Could the developed countries benefit from giving aid to developing countries? Why?A: Yes, they could benefit from giving aid to the less-developed countries. The western nations would also have an economic interest in bringing greater prosperity to the low-income countries, since their exports to these territories would thus be stepped up.6. What do you know about the Group77 （77 集团）？A: The less-developed countries of UNCTED are known as the "Group of 77" which was created on 15lh June 1964 and at present includes more than 130 members.7- How do you understand the sentence "support along these lines might be some kind ofcompensation for the ^exploitation9 of the former colonies”?A: Most of the less-developed countries were exposed to one or more countries' invasion in their history while some of less-developed countries* prosperity in some degree due to the "exploitation^ of the former colonics, so support to Icss-dcvclopcd countries might be some kind of compensation.8・ What are the specific aims of developing countries^ demand for more cash and trade concessions from the developed countries?A: Their specific aims arc to have some Special Drawing Rights•9. What is the meaning of "at their disposal^? Could you find a similar expression to replace it?A: "At their dispose广 means "available to use as one wishes"・ A similar expression to replace it is “to deal with freely二10. How are conference decisions and board decisions made?A: Conference decisions require a two-thirds majority but procedural matters a simple majority only. Board decisions are taken on a simple majority.Translate the following sentences into English:11・尽管第一次会议没有制定出具体目标，联合国贸易和发展会议的总任务是制定、协商和 实施改善发展进程的措施。Although no specific objectives were laid down at the first conference, the general function of UNCTAD is to formulate, negotiate and implement measures to improve the development process.12・在没有有效协议的情况下，一旦出口收入下降，应立即采用强制的和自动的补救措施。In the absence of effective agreements, compulsory and automatic compensatory measures should be introduced as soon as there is a decline in export earnings.13. 实际上西方国家在使低收入国家繁荣起来的同时，其对这些国家的出口将增加，因此也 能获得经济效益。The western nations would, indeed, also have an economic interest in bringing greater prosperity to the low-income countries, since their exports to these territories would thus be stepped up.14. 国际经济新秩序主要是要求发达国家提供更多的现金和贸易方面的优惠。The new inter national economic order consists mainly in a demand for more cash and trade concessions from the developed countries.15. 贸易和发展理事会是联合国贸易和发展会议的常设机构。A trade and development Board is the permanent organ of the United Nations Conference on Tradeand Development.